President: Muhammadu Buhari (2015)
Land area: 351,649 sq mi (910,771 sq km); total area: 356,667 sq mi (923,768 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 177,155,754 (growth rate: 2.47%); birth rate: 38.03/1000; infant mortality rate: 74.09/1000; life expectancy: 52.62
Capital (1991 est.): Abuja, 2.153 million
Largest cities: Lagos (2011 est.), 11.223 million; Kano, 3.375 million; Ibadan, 2.949; Port Harcourt 1.894 million; Kaduna, 1.524 million
Monetary unit: Naira
Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Ethnicity/race: More than 250 ethnic groups, including Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Ibo 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Religions: Islam 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
National Holiday: Independence Day (National Day), October 1
Literacy rate: 61.3% (2010 est.)
Geography Nigeria, one-third larger than Texas and the most populous country in Africa, is situated on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa. Its neighbors are Benin, Niger, Cameroon, and Chad. The lower course of the Niger River flows south through the western part of the country into the Gulf of Guinea. Swamps and mangrove forests border the southern coast; inland are hardwood forests.
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 418,000 (2012); mobile cellular: 112.78 million (2012). Broadcast media: nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007). Internet hosts: 1,234 (2012). Internet users: 43.989 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 3,505 km (2008). Roadways: total: 193,200 km; paved: 28,980 km; unpaved: 164,220 km (2004 est.). Waterways: 8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011). Ports and harbors: Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos. Airports: 54 (2013).